(Moderator: Ozgehan Senyuva)
Good governance in International Non-Governmental Sport Organisations: An analysis based on empirical data on accountability, participation and executive body members in Sport Governing Bodies
Arnout Geeraert, KU Leuven, Belgium
Jens Alm, Danish Institute for Sports Studies/Play the Game, Copenhagen, Denmark; Malmö University, Sweden
Michael Groll, German Sport University, Cologne, Germany
In this paper, structural issues with regard to the quality of the self-governance of 35 Sport Governing Bodies (SGBs) are treated. Firstly, this paper presents empirical evidence on the lack of accountability arrangements in SGBs. In particular, the watchdog function of their member organisations is severely undermined by the general absence of objective criteria and transparency in the distribution of funding to members. With regard to checks and balances, arguably the most topical issue is the total lack of independent ethics committees, if any, and their inability to conduct ex officio investigations. Secondly, our survey demonstrates that most SGBs have institutionalised athlete participation. However, in the overwhelming majority of the organisations, they have not been granted formal decision making power. Thirdly, with regard to executive body members, there is the rather anachronistic dominance of the European continent and also the preponderance of male officials. In addition, the general lack of term limits poses serious threats with regard to the concentration of power, which is evidenced for instance by the overall number of years SGB presidents are in office. The presented empirical evidence clearly supports the recent calls for good governance in sport. SGBs need to agree upon a set of well-defined criteria of good governance and take action towards compliance with those. Only then, the self-governance of sport will be credible and justifiable.
The Legality of the UEFA Home Grown Player Rule
Richard Parrish, Edge Hill University
Geoff Pearson, University of Liverpool
The UEFA Home Grown Player Rule requires that football clubs participating in European competition must have a minimum of eight players classified as ‘home-grown’ (or a maximum of 17 members of a 25 man squad who do not satisfy this criteria). In doing so, the Rule might give rise to indirect discrimination which restricts the free movement of workers within the EU. However, if it achieves objectives recognised as objectively legitimate under EU law (in this case improvement of Competitive Balance and increasing quality in the training and development of young players) then the Rule could be considered compatible with EU law as long as it remains proportionate.
This paper is based on a 6-month European Commission-funded project investigating whether the Rule achieves its dual aims and whether it can be considered proportionate and therefore legal regardless of any inherently discriminatory effect. The project team carried out extensive statistical analysis of the make-up of squads and the levels of competitive balance in UEFA competitions, as well as interviewing clubs, governing bodies and other stakeholders throughout the EU about the Rule’s impact.
Basic Indicators for Better Governance in International Sport: A self-assessment tool for sport governing bodies
Jean-Loup Chappelet and Michael Mrkonjic, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Since the European Union Council Nice Declaration in December 2000 and the first international conference on Governance in sport in February 2001 in Brussels more than 25 governmental organisations, sport organisations and scholars have tried to define sets of guidelines and principles of (good) governance specific to sport and its various local, national and international sport governing bodies. However, indicators are missing to assess whether such principles are applied by international sport organisations. Such a set of indicators organised was presented by the authors in 2012 under the name of BIGIS (Basic Indicators of Governance in International Sport). The current paper presents an evolution of these indicators based on tests carried out with several European and international sport governing bodies. It shows that these tested indicators under seven dimensions can be used to improve the governance of a given sport organisation, as well as to help it benchmark with other similar organisations, thus achieving better governance over several years.
(Moderator: David Ranc)
The prohibition of online sports betting: A comparative analysis of Germany and the United States
Danyel Reiche, American University of Beirut in Lebanon
This paper examines sports betting in Germany and the United States of America, two countries that differ from the global trend that has been moving towards the legalization and liberalization of the sector. The presentation will start with an introduction into the overall issue and explain why sports’ betting is a controversial topic. The following research questions are asked: Which joint factors led to the prohibition of online sports wagering in Germany and the U.S.? In what ways do the cases differ? After explaining the methodology of this research (Comparative Politics – Most Similar Systems Design) and conducting the case studies by interviewing experts in the respective countries and reviewing the academic literature as well as press articles, the article discusses the similarities and differences between the two countries, such as the official and unofficial reasons behind the bans, the administrative responsibilities of the issue, different policy instruments for implementing the bans, exceptions to the prohibition, the important role of courts in the debate, external pressure to change the respective national regulations, and the powerful role of sports governing associations that offer, in both cases, the main reasons for policy making decisions.
A media analysis of the coverage of football betting scandals in France and the United Kingdom
Jean-Patrick Villeneuve and Dawn Aquilina, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Sport betting is a lucrative business for bookmakers, for the lucky (or wise) punters, but also for governments and by the ricochet of governmental funding for all of sport. While not new or even recent, the deviances linked to sport betting, first and foremost match-fixing, have gained increased media exposure in the past decade. The question of the impact of this particular situation on the perceptions of the wider society calls into question the business model of modern professional sport and more fundamentally the raison d’être of a competitive sporting activity. How are these deviances presented? Who is believed to be responsible? What ‘spin’ is put on the situation? How is the media covering the various cases of match-fixing?
This contribution proposes to do a media analysis of the coverage of sport betting deviances in football (most covered sport) in 2 countries, UK & France (most transparent about situation) and using in each case the 2 leading publications (including The Guardian and L’Equipe) and this covering a period of 3 years. The fundamental question is to identify, via a typology of actors and of responsibilities, specifically what dynamics and what ‘culprits’ are generally identified in the media: the state as regulator, the bookmakers, the sport organisations, the players, criminal agents, etc. This is an exploratory study.
The fight against corruption and the athlete’s fundamental rights
Katarina Pijetlovic, Tallinn Law School, Estonia
The European Union is currently developing and defining its policy towards match-fixing in sport in the exercise of it supplementary competences under Article 6 TFEU. Whereas match-fixing strikes at the core of sport and fighting against this form of corruption remains one of the centrally important issues in preserving the integrity of sport, it should not be overlooked that protecting the economic and fundamental rights of athletes from adoption and enforcement of disproportionate anti-corruption rules in violation of EU law by the sport governing bodies is equally important. In EU law and policy, autonomy of sporting bodies is conditional upon compliance with the law.
This paper looks at the manner of entry into beginning-of-season consent agreements, the rules in the anti-corruption codes that become applicable by virtue of those agreements, and the terms and clauses that violate fundamental rights of athletes. It provides arguments for the application of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights to the rules and practices of the sport governing bodies due to their monopolistic state-like competences and the scope of regulatory latitude. The sports related jurisprudence in the EU thus far revolved around the economic rights of athletes under internal market and competition provisions. It is argued that the Charter can be used in the familiar analytical framework devised for the regulatory rules in sport under those provisions to support the athletes’ arguments and counterbalance the reliance on Article 165 TFEU concept of ‘specificity of sport’ by the governing bodies seeking to justify their restrictive measures.
(Moderator: Basak Alpan)
The people’s game in crisis? European football during the Thirties Great Depression
Paul Dietschy, University of Franche-Comté
The interwar was a fundamental era for the European football. Soccer became the “people’s game” for millions of Europeans from Soviet Russia to Spain. Professionalism, development of international competitions, spread of sport press were some of the characteristics of this period, especially during the Terrible Thirties. Can we conclude that the fate of football was independent of the great political, economic and social issues of this time? Based on various archives (FIFA, national football associations, sport press) and historical literature, this presentation will examine the impact of the different kinds of crisis on the development and organisation of the game. It will also try to determine how football social actors were aware of it and how they manage to adapt the game to the political, economical and social situation. The presentation will more particularly focus on French, Italian and Spanish cases in a compared perspective.
Strategies against right-wing extremism in (German) football stadiums
Especially in times of economic and social crisis right-wing extremist ideas appear more attractive for people suffering from the circumstances. Easy answers for complicated questions seem to offer a logical explanation for many problems, populistic solutions appear to be the way out of the “misery”. Football stadiums are popular areas for rightwing extremists to recruit new members for their movements.
The good news: There is absolutely no lack of ideas, statements and essays focussing on combatting right-wing extremism in German football stadiums. The bad news: Many of these contributions suffer from a lack of a serious scientific base. The mostly unanswered overall-question is: What can strategies against right-wing extremism in football stadiums contribute and what can these strategies not accomplish?
It is therefore necessary to take a closer look at the theoretical background. Which elements are inherent in the right-wing extremism in football stadiums? Why are football stadiums an attractive recruiting ground for right-wing extremists? How does right-wing extremism manifest itself in the stadiums? In which points can different strategies tackle these docking units of right-wing extremism?
Without answering these theoretical questions, every strategy facing right-wing extremism remains a well meant suggestion, founded on observations and inductive conclusions. Of course these observations need to be considered while looking for strategies with practical impact against racism, homophobia and other elements of right-wing extremism in football stadiums. But the basis of every strategy must be a theoretical-grounded fundament.
This fundament should be build up in the following paper by analysing the docking units of right-wing extremism in football stadiums. Afterwards strategies for tackling right-wing extremism on different levels should be presented.
Convergence and co-movement analyses for European first five football leagues: Effect of EU crisis
Bilgesu Güneş Yerli, Pınar Deniz and Tolga Ahmet Kalaycı, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey
In this study, we analyze whether there is convergence and co-movement between the ratios of European top five football league revenues to the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) of their countries within the period of 2003-2012. Annual revenue data of highest level football leagues, which are English Premier League, Spanish La Liga, Germany’s Bundesliga, Italian Serie A and French League; and GDP data of the UK, Spain, Germany, Italy and France are employed. Empirically, Johansen-Juselius cointegration test is utilized in order to investigate existence of co-movement between the ratios of football league revenues to GDP for the countries in question. Moreover, panel unit root methodology is used to test whether these ratios converge to each other within the selected time series. According to this technique, stationarity implies convergence, whereas attaining unit root result suggests divergence among cross sectional units. Technically, Im et al. (2003) and Levin et al. (2002) which are first generation panel unit root tests and Pesaran (2007), a second generation panel unit root test which allows for common factors among cross sectional units, are employed. Furthermore, effect of crisis on the football sector is investigated via Zivot and Andrews (1992) structural break test. Preliminary results show existence of co-movement between football revenues as a ratio to GDP regarding European first five leagues and that European Union crisis has an effect on the football sector.
(Moderator: An Vermeersch)
‘What about us?’: Exploring the EU’s growing children’s rights agenda in the context of professional football and young migrant sportspeople
Eleanor Drywood, University of Liverpool, UK
Over the past decade the EU has promoted an increasingly explicit and ambitious children’s rights agenda. Following the Lisbon Treaty 2007, protection of the rights of the child an aim of the Union; and Article 24 Charter, which confirms a number of key children’s rights principles (inter alia: the right for all children to the protection and care as is necessary for their well-being; their right to have their views heard in accordance with their age and maturity; and that decisions must be taken in a child’s best interests), has attained binding status. Meanwhile, the Commission has published a Strategy on the Rights of the Child (COM(2011) 60 final, 6.2.2011), in which it pledges to incorporate a children’s rights perspective into the design, implementation and monitoring of all EU policies that directly or indirectly affect young people.
Since the Bosman ruling (Case 145-93,  ECR I-4921), the impact of EU law on Europe’s football transfer system has been significant, whilst the sport’s governing bodies have responded with measures aimed at off-setting the potential impact of free movement on the status of young players with measures such as UEFA’s home-grown player rules. Arguably the effect of some of these developments is to encourage child migration and to increase the likelihood of dubious practices in relation to the recruitment of young players. This paper, intended as a preliminary exploration for a longer research project, will consider the EU’s growing children’s rights agenda within the context of professional football, particularly young migrant players.
The Legal Dimenion of International Football Events: Is Turkey Ready?
Kadir Gürten, University of Ankara, Turkey
Özgehan Şenyuva, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Turkey made the headlines of sports pages all around the world for being a candidate to host both 2020 Olympic Games and 2020 World Cup. As a persistent candidate over the past years and with a strong economy, Turkey is considered to be very likely to host one of these events. Turkish leaders and opinion leaders have been making their case for domestic audience stressing the benefits of hosting an international sports event, arguing that Turkey would benefit significantly. However, when the ongoing debate over hosting one of these events in Turkey is examined, it becomes evident that both the pro and con arguments are concentrated on social and economic dimensions of hosting international sports events. What is missing is the legal dimension. The experiences of 2010 World Cup in South Africa and 2008 European Championship in Austria and Switzerland demonstrated that hosting an international sports event requires the presence and implementation of a large set of legal rules and procedures ranging from sponsorships to the construction deals and tenders. With the increased commercialization of football and increased sponsorships, it became a concern for many how the local community and practices are affected from hosting an event. This paper aims to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the current sports and fans related legislation of Turkey in facing the potential challenges of hosting an international event, with a comparative analysis based on the Swiss and South African experiences.
Socio-cultural Regulation of Sport in the EU and Player’s Agents
The EU intervention into the regulation of player`s agents has intensified after the White Paper on Sport. How this regulatory interest of EU could be explained? What underpins the EU intervention into the regulation of player`s agents? This paper argues that the EU intervention is in the pursuit of elimination of bad practices within activities of player`s agents which deemed to have detrimental impact on the image of sport and its socio-cultural functions in Europe. In order to develop this argument the paper examines the EU intervention by analyzing the interinstitutional interaction among the Commission, the Parliament and the Member States who are deemed to be the main actors of socio-cultural coalition within competing advocacy coalitions in European sport policy sub-system and locates the issue of player`s agents within. In particular, it analyses the intensified activities of these socio-cultural actors following the White Paper on Sport and under the new competency on sport in the Lisbon Treaty through the use of institutional venues including policy papers and on-going impact assessment by the Commission; the presidency conclusions and formal council meetings by the Member States; and influential reports and resolutions by the Parliament. The paper therefore illustrates links between the socio-cultural regulation of sport and the issue of agents at European level.
EU criminal law and sport: Ultima ratio?
Samuli Miettinen, University of Helsinki, Finland
Criminalization has emerged as a key option to combat undesirable phenomena linked to sport. The paper maps EU legislation and recent proposals onto the EU policy debate on criminalization. It examines three areas where criminalisation may be perceived as an appropriate response: racism, corruption, and match fixing.
Criminalization linked to sport is an obvious candidate for legal basis issues, and raises most of the questions discussed in recent literature on criminalization. Following the Commission’s 2012 proposal on fraud against the EU budget, it is clear that will be pursued through ancillary criminal competences implied beyond Article 83 TFEU. How seriously should we view such legal basis issues when criminalisation is linked to sport?
In the 2011 communication on criminal policy, the Commission recalled policy questions that are raised by criminalization under EU law. Criminalization must provide added value, must respect subsidiarity, fundamental rights, proportionality, and so on. Many of these issues are also raised by the three examples of criminalization linked to sport. How do recent policy documents and legislative impact assessments correlate with this framework?
Solutions differ across the three examples. One underlying concern is linked to all. To what extent is criminalization an option the last resort, ultima ratio, as required by the Charter of Fundamental Rights?
(Moderator: Adam Pendlebury)
Feminisation in times of crises: the case of French football
Dàvid Ranc, ESSCA School of Management
Since 2000 and perhaps for the exception of losing the 2006 World Cup final, French national team football may arguably be seen as moving from one crisis to another, including the inglorious qualification to the 2010 WC and defeats at very early stages in the 2002, 2004, 2008, 2010 European and World Championships.
In this context of an internal crisis, that has lead to a stark decrease in the number of football players in France and negative images relayed by the French (and possibly International) media, the Women’s national football teams (on the back of improving results) have somehow been seen as providing hope to journalists, supporters and national football authorities. In 2009, shortly after the beginning of the international financial then monetary crisis, the Fédération Française de Football (FFF, the French FA) launched a plan to ‘feminise’ football.
As of 2012, the plan seemed to have failed massively. Reportedly, there were fewer women playing in 2012 than in 2007. The election of a new President and Committee in 2011 led to a new ‘plan of feminisation’ of football.
What explains the disappointing results of the 2009 plan (and possibly previous efforts?) how has it led to the development new 2012 strategy? This research will use interviews with policy makers in order to map previous and ongoing strategies to develop women’s football (players, but to some extent supporters, too) in France.
Gender verification in sport and its assessment from the viewpoint of international human rights law
Elizaveta Zhuk, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia
For a long time women were deprived of the opportunity to do sports. Over the years women’s participation in sports competitions engendered a new challenge. At the end of the 1960th international sports organizations headed by the International Olympic Committee introduced a special procedure of gender verification which for more than 30 years was a precondition for female athletes participating in sports competitions. Gender verification was aimed at preventing men from participating in women’s competitions which would be an obvious violation of the principle of fair play. The methods of gender verification were changing but the achievements of genetics and medicine didn’t make it perfect enough which can be proved by case studies. Mistakes occurred soon after gender verification adoption as well as they still occur in the XXI century though the procedure became selective, sometimes making female athletes to assert their rights both to participate in sports competitions and to be called women. Though the task of gender verification was to reveal men trying to pass themselves off as females, no such cases were recorded; instead, the procedure of gender verification began to reveal women with chromosomal aberrations (for example, with androgen insensitivity syndrome and other divergences of a 46,XX which is considered as a ‘normal’ female karyotype) which nevertheless didn’t give them any competitive advantages over other female athletes. From the viewpoint of international human rights law gender verification seems to be arguable, which made it a subject of this research.
Golf industry attrition: Challenges to retaining qualified golf professionals, particularly women
Vanessa MacKinnon, California University of Pennsylvania, California, PA
Problem Statement: Attrition of qualified professionals can pose a challenge to any industry. In addition to the high costs associated with hiring and training new professionals, there is a loss of talent and expertise, and a dearth of experienced professionals to serve as mentors and leaders. Attrition of women professionals can pose an additional challenge in traditionally male-dominated industries such as sports, as it means there will be fewer female role models and teachers for young women, and a smaller pool of female candidates for leadership ranks.
Procedure: This study will explore the reasons for professional attrition in the golf industry, with special attention given to the reasons for female attrition. Former golf industry professionals will be surveyed as to their experiences in the golf industry and their reasons for leaving the industry. Both qualitative and quantitative data will be used to analyze the respondents’ primary reasons for leaving. In addition, the responses of male and female participants will be compared and contrasted.
Implications: Results could be used by the broader sports industry to determine the reasons why qualified professionals leave the industry rather than staying and serving as mentors or seeking to rise through the leadership ranks. The results could help the industry develop programs to retain qualified professionals- particularly women- and could also be useful for university educators to better prepare young people and future coaches for the work environment they will encounter upon entering the sport industry.
(Moderator: Borja García)
The Heart of the game: Why supporters are vital to improving governance in football
Antonia Hagemann, Supporters Direct
Supporters Direct Europe (SD Europe) has produced a Position Paper in order to set out our position and evidence of how supporter involvement and ownership can help improve European football and deliver European values and EU aims.
What SD Europe says is important because many football clubs in Europe are in financial turmoil, the game suffers from the effects of poor governance at club and national levels, and because the potential to deliver social and economic benefits from the game is not being realised.
Increasing numbers of supporters are seeking assistance in becoming involved in decision making: forming democratic organisations, building capacity, and representing supporters’ interests.
Our work over more than a decade has given us a recognised expertise, not just in developing supporter involvement and fan ownership, but also in the wider issues of sports governance. Helping to improve football’s governance and addressing financial instability are vital, not only in improving sport but addressing key issues in Europe: strengthening democracy and citizenship, building cooperation and dialogue, and improving communities.
This paper sets out how we think those issues are best addressed.
Football spectatorship, mediatisation and the identity question – The Case of the Champions League
Arne Niemann and Alexander Brand, University of Mainz, Germany
The ongoing Europeanisation of governance structures of sport, especially football, has become one of the most fruitful avenues of social science-oriented Sports Studies. Carrying research further, we ask whether there are consequences from such altered forms of governance with regard to the lifeworlds of sports consumers. I.e. we question whether there are changes at the level of supporters’ and spectators’ perceptions, and in a wider sense: their identities? This question gains momentum not least against the background of manifold crises within Europe and the supposed crumbling of ‘Europeanness’ in times of financial turmoil, tight budgets, and enforced austerity measures.
The underlying idea is that the increasing depth and frequency of interactions related to football in Europe has already led to an incremental change of perceptions and, by that, altered the very shapes of “communities of belonging”. Of specific importance, in this regard, seems the UEFA Champions League (CL), the de facto pan-European league competition of top European clubs which could be interpreted as constituting a rather stable transboundary space of action. Preliminary research so far has hinted at new forms of allegiance, orientation and networking among elite actors in the CL context. We hypothesise that the developments have also left their mark on sports fans, i.e. the main consumers of sport. In order to build a bridge between conceptual work on the Europeanisation of lifeworlds and more ethnographically oriented research into incremental identity change, this paper aims to describe the UEFA Champions League as a site where a “European public football space” forms, both in terms of transboundary spectatorship and fandom as well as through the continuous creation/normalisation of transnational media events, i.e. CL broadcasts.
Does qualifying really qualify? Comparing the representations of the Euro 2008 and Euro 2012 in the Turkish media
Basak Alpan and Özgehan Şenyuva, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Departing from the idea that football has been, and still is, a terrain for expression and negotiation of identity for the football spectators during the Euro championships, the authors aim to examine the Turkish national identity negotiations in two different events, Euro 2008 and Euro 2012, where Turkish team was able to qualify in the former, but not in the latter. Bora (2000) calls the relations between Turkey and Europe through football as ideal objects of analysis towards understanding the European complex in the formation (and perpetual re-formation) of Turkish national identity. Departing from this close link between the formation of Turkish national identity and ‘encounter with Europe’ in terms of football, the paper aims to understand whether the existence or non-existence of the Turkish national football team on the field feeds into the identifications and narratives of the Turkish football spectators through the lens of the media, using a qualitative analysis.
(Moderator: Geoff Pearson)
Battling corruption and match fixing in world soccer
James M. Dorsey, University of Wuerzburg, Germany, and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
The struggle to reform bodies governing world football is proving to be a slow-moving, convoluted process. The outcome, against the backdrop of the worst scandal in soccer’s history, will be determined in Kuala Lumpur, home to the Asian Football Confederation (AFC) rather than on Zurich’s FIFA Street that hosts the headquarters of world football governing body FIFA.
The downfall of Mohammed Bin Hammam, a Qatari national at the center of the scandal, who in late 2012 resigned as a member of FIFA’s executive committee and president of the AFC and was almost simultaneously definitively banned for life from involvement in professional soccer, has at least for now taken the scandal off the front pages. At the same time, it has put the controversy over Qatar’s winning of the right to host the 2022 World Cup back on the agenda.
Yet, as in the case of Bin Hammam, who was accused of corruption and financial mismanagement, FIFA is likely to ensure that it’s fundamental, secretive, clubby, and back-room, back-slapping way of operating remains intact. To do so, it is certain not to put the Qatar World Cup at risk as this would open the door to questioning of the way World Cups are awarded and the FIFA rules and regulations that govern bids.
As a result, the clamor for a thorough restructuring of the bodies governing world soccer depends on whether the AFC’s executive committee will shoulder the burden following committee elections in April 2013. To do so, it would have to act on an internal audit conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers that calls for legal counsel to explore possible civil and/or criminal action against Bin Hammam as well as the renegotiation or cancellation of a controversial $1 billion commercial rights agreement with a Singapore-based company.
This paper will explore lessons to be learnt from world soccer’s seeming inability to initiate far-reaching reform despite widespread perceptions of its governing bodies as being thoroughly corrupt and resistant to transparent good governance.
It will identify as one reason the fact that FIFA and regional soccer bodies like the AFC have not truly embarked on a road of reform in the absence of fan pressure that would persuade commercial sponsors to speak out. Soccer’s governing bodies have further benefitted from the fact that national associations, including European soccer body UEFA and its members that is viewed as the group with the sports highest standards of good governance, have been equally reluctant to put their vested interests at risk by pushing for real change
The paper will further contrast the fig leaf reform approach to reform of FIFA with the way fan pressure and political interests have ensured that the problem of match fixing in countries like Turkey was approached and officials and fixers were held accountable, albeit in ways that admittedly were influenced by often political struggles for power.
Match-fixing in London Olympic Year: Scandals, Lessons & Policy Developments
Kevin Carpenter, LawInSport
2012 was predicted to be the year when match-fixing, particularly that related to sports betting, became the principal issue of sporting integrity worldwide with London hosting the Olympic Games. As it transpired there was only one such scandal at the 2012 Olympics and it was not related to betting. Yet the Olympics did provide the actors in the fight against match-fixing with many invaluable lessons. Developments in the field of match-fixing during 2012 came instead from outside of the Olympics with the progression and revelation of numerous striking instances of match-fixing and the advancement of new public and private policies to detect, deter and educate. This follow-up to my paper ‘Match-fixing – The Biggest Threat to Sport in the 21st Century?’ will examine issues ranging from the increasing use of polygraph (lie-detector) tests and the role of national and international bodies, to the sports that have been knee-deep in the match-fixing mire during 2012 and whether the current approach to sanctioning is proportionate.
Corruption Scandal in Polish Football 2004-2013: Social and Historical Background, Mechanism and Consequences
The purpose of the article is to analyse a corruption scandal in Polish football, revealed in 2004. So far, 600 persons from the Polish football scene – including football activists, referees, observers, coaches and managers, training staff members and footballers – have been found guilty of corruption practices. More than 50 clubs were involved in the scandal, and over a dozen were penalised with severe fines and demotion to a lower league.
According to the latest research on corruption in the contemporary world, Poland still ranks high among those European countries where corruption is most widespread and widely tolerated by the society. The article is aimed at presenting both the mechanism of corruption practices in the Polish football environment, as well as the wider context of historical and social conditions which contributed to corruption in Poland before and after 1989. Moreover, the article presents the consequences of the scandal – the disciplinary measures and court penalties imposed on the perpetrators, institutional and legal changes aimed at preventing corruption in football in the future, as well as its social ramifications.
The article is based on the main literature concerning corruption and its social and historical conditions, media coverage of the scandal, investigation and trial, available court records of the case, normative acts at the level of national law and football union (Polish Football Association) regulations introduced after the scandal. Theoretical background of the article refers to six main groups of theories of corruption: public choice theories, “bad apple” theories, organizational cultures theories, clashing moral values theories, the ethos of public administration theories and correlation theories.